1. Classification :

Origin: The mango is native to southern Asia , especially Burma and eastern India . It spread early on to Malaya, eastern Asia and eastern Africa. Mangos were introduced to California ( Santa Barbara ) in 1880.

Forms: The mango exists in two races, one from India and the other from the Philippines and Southeast Asia . The Indian race is intolerant of humidity, has flushes of bright red new growth that are subject to mildew, and bears monoembryonic fruit of high color and regular form. The Indo-china and Philippine race tolerates excess moisture, has pale green or red new growth and resists mildew. Its polyembryonic fruit is pale green and elongated kidney-shaped. Philippines types from Mexico have proven to be the hardiest mangos in California .

Adaptation: Mangos basically require a frost-free climate. Flowers and small fruit can be killed if temperatures drop below 7.22 degree Celcius, even for a short period. Young trees may be seriously damaged if the temperature drops below -1.1 degree Celcius, but mature trees may withstand very short periods of temperatures as low as -3.9 degree Celcius. The mango must have warm, dry weather to set fruit.

2. Common names
Mango, Mangot, Manga, Mangou

Related species: Bindjai ( Mangifera caesia ), Horse Mango ( M. foetida ), Kuweni mango ( M. odorata ).

Distant affinity: Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale ), Gandaria ( Bouea gandaria ), Pistachio ( Pistacia vera ), Marula ( Sclerocarya birrea ), Ambarella (Spondias cytherea), Yellow Mombin ( Spondias mombin ), Red Mombin ( Spondias purpurea ), Imbu ( Spondias tuberosa ).

3. Recommended varieties/ cultivars

Clone characteristics and cultivars:

(a) Mango Cultivars: There are hundreds of mango cultivars distributed throughout the world, of which Asia and India have over 500 classified varieties have evolved and have been described and 69 species mostly restricted to tropical regions. Perhaps some of these varieties are duplicates with different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial nurseries. The highest diversity occurs in Malaysia , particularly in peninsular Malaya, Borneo and Sumatra , representing the heart of the distribution range of the genus. The natural occurrence of all the Mangifera species extends as far north as 27 degree latitude and as Far East as the Caroline Islands. Wild mangoes occur in India , Sri Lanka , Bangladesh , Myanmar , Sikkim , Thailand , Kampuchea , Vietnam , Laos , southern China , Malaysia, Singapore , Indonesia , Brunei , the Philippines , Papua New Guinea and the Solomon and Caroline Islands. Maximum species diversity exists in western Malaysia and about 28 species are found in this region. However, in the Western Hemisphere, a few cultivars (125) derived from a breeding program in Florida are the most popular for international trade.

A typical adult-bearing age mango tree must have desirable vegetative characteristics, especially:

(i) tree shape or form, good leaf orientation, leaf shape, good floral and fruit characteristics and the tree should be normal, well-balanced, in good health and exhibiting normal growth.
(ii) The tree should also have the following important characteristics:
(iii) High salt tolerance
(iv) High heat and cold tolerance
(v) High disease and insect resistance
(vi) High drought tolerance
(vii) High yields
(viii) Minimal turpentine-like off-taste fruits
(ix) low fiber content fruits
(x) Long harvest season

(b) Grown varieties and cultivars:

(i) Varieties grown in Florida and Hawaii , USA

Aloha : Origin San Diego , Jerry Staedeli, 1971. From Hawaiian seed. Tree spreading, light bearer, according to rootstock affinity. Fruit large (14-18 oz.), dull yellow covered with red. Early (Oct-Nov). Susceptible to anthracnose. For coast.

Brooks : Origin Miami , 1916. Seedling of Sandersha. Tree somewhat dwarf. Fruit medium to large (10-20 oz.), kidney-shaped, green with yellow shoulder, rather fibrous. Very late. Resistant to anthracnose. For greenhouse and containers.

Cambodiana : Origin Miami , 1910. Seedling of Saigon . Philippine type. Fruit small to medium, elongated ovate, yellow-green, juicy, flavor acid. Early. For greenhouse.

Carabao : Origin Philippines . Philippine type. Fruit medium (10 oz.), elongated, kidney-shaped, light green blushed yellow. Seed very large, flesh stringy, acid, juicy. Early midseason. For greenhouse.

Carrie : Origin Delray Beach , Florida , 1940. Seedling of Sophie Fry. Tree dwarf. Fruit varies from small to 12 oz., regular ovate, green-yellow, fiberless, flavor high. Early. For foothills, interior and greenhouse.  

   

Cooper (syn. Cooper No. 1 or 3): Origin Hollywood , Floyd Cooper, 1948. Tree spreading, dense. Fruit large (16-20 oz.), long, green. Flesh high quality. Late. For foothills.

Costa Rica : Origin East Los Angeles , Gilbert Guyenne, 1980. From seed from Costa Rica . Fruit small to 10 oz., elongated, flat, pale green, juicy. Very early. For coast and foothills.

Doubikin : Origin Kelmscott, West Africa , Arnold Doubikin, 1965. Two sibling seedlings of Kensington pass under this name. Tree dwarf, rounded, slow growing, fruits in two years from seed. Polyembryonic. Fruit round, large (12-16 oz.), midseason. For coast, foothills, greenhouse.

Earlygold : Origin Pine Island , Florida , 1943. Tree upright. Fruit medium to 12 oz., obliquely round, orange with red blush, fiberless, seed often abortive. Very early. Resistant to anthracnose. For coast.

Edgehill : Origin Vista , Calif. , Paul Thomson, 1920s. Indian type. Tree upright, hardy, vigorous. Monoembryonic. Blooms early. Produces small to medium (8-12 oz.), almost fiberless fruit, green with red blush. Resists mildew, subject to soft nose. Midseason (Nov-Dec). For foothills.

Edward : Origin Miami , Edward Simmons, 1948. Hybrid of Haden X Carabao. Intermediate between Indian and Philippine forms. Tree dense, compact. Fruit medium to large, elongated ovate, apex often oblique, yellow green with red blush. Seed very small, easily removed. Flavor excellent. Early. For interior.

   

Fascell : Origin Miami , 1936. Seedling of Brooks. Pat. #451. Tree open, slow. Fruit medium to large, elongated flattened, yellow with pink blush, flesh acid. Early. For coast and inland.

Gouveia : Origin Honolulu , Ruth Gouveia, 1946. Tree upright, open, Fruit medium to large,(10-20 oz.), long ovate, green becoming bright red. Sweet, juicy, no fiber. Late, uneven ripening. For coast and inland.

Haden : Origin Coconut Grove, Capt. Haden, 1910. seedling of Mulgoba. Indian type. Tree spreading. Fruit large (to 24 oz.), regular ovate, yellow almost covered with red, flavor mild, little fiber. Early. Susceptible to anthracnose and alternate bearing, traits imparted to its progeny. For interior and greenhouse.

   

Irwin : Origin Miami , F.D. Irwin, 1945. Seedling of Lippens. Florida 's leading local market cultivar. Tree very small. Fruit medium, 12-16 oz., elongated, ovate regular in form, orange yellow with deep blush, flesh bland, fiberless. Mid-season. For foothills, interior, greenhouse.

Julie : Origin Trinidad . Tree dwarf, slow growing. Fruit small (6-10 oz.), flat oblong, obliquely almost two-nosed, orange, rather fibrous, juicy, sweet. Late. For containers, greenhouse.

   

Keitt : Origin Homestead , 1945. Probably seedling of Mulgoba. Fruit large (20-26 oz.), ovate with slightly oblique apex, green, flesh rich, fiber only around seed. Resists mildew. Late. For interior. Florida fruiting July Aug., sometimes to Sept.

   

MacPherson : Origin Encinitas, L.L. Bucklew, 1944. Tree dense, low branching. Fruit small (6-8 oz.), yellow-green with red blush, flesh fairly good. Midseason. For coast.

Manila : Origin Mexico , a seedling race common in Veracruz state. A seedling strain from Hawaii . Philippine type. Tree dwarf, dense. Fruit small to 10 oz., shaped long, flat, yellow, flavor sharp. Subject to anthracnose. Early (Oct-Dec), late picked fruit best. For coast and foothills.

Mulgoba : Origin Bombay ; distinct from ancient cv. Mulgoa. Fruit medium, 16 oz., greenhouse.

Ott : Origin La Habra heights, William Ott, 1948. Seedling of Saigon . Tree dwarf. Fruit medium, to six inches, orange-yellow with pink blush. Season very early.

Pina (syn. Pineapple): Origin Mexico , a seedling strain. Philippine type. Tree upright. Fruit small to 12 oz., shape ovoid, orange yellow. Flavor suggests pineapple. Early midseason (Nov-Dec). For foothills.

Pirie (syn. Paheri): Origin India , ancient. Tree broad, spreading. Fruit small (8-10 oz.), almost round, apex oblique, yellow with red blush. Juicy, fiberless, rich flavor. Alternate bearing; blooms every 18 months. Early midseason. For greenhouse.

Reliable : Origin San Diego , Calif. , Jerry Staedeli, 1966. Seedling of Sensation. Tree broad, dense, slow. Fruit size varies from 10-20 oz., shape oblong, yellow blushed red. Rarely misses a crop. Subject to anthracnose, soft nose. Long ripening season (Oct-Feb). For coast and foothills.

T1 : Origin Vista , Paul Thomson, 1969. Seedling of Edgehill. Tree low, spreading. Vigor dependent upon rootstock. Fruit medium to large, 6-8 inches, shape broad oval, green with red blush, fiberless. Subject to anthracnose, resists mildew, soft nose. Late midseason (Dec-Jan), very late on coast (Jan-Feb). For coast, foothills, interior, containers.

Thomson (syn. Thomson Large Seedling): Origin Vista , Paul Thomson, 1966. Manila seedling, polyembryonic. Tree spreading, vigor dependent upon rootstock. Fruit small to medium, (6-12 oz.), yellow, shape flat, to eight inches. Resists mildew. High fiber under chemical fertilizer regime. Season early, long (September-November), ripens well indoors if picked prematurely. For coast.

Tommy Atkins : Originated from a seed planted in the 1920s at Fort Lauderdale , Florida . Commercially grown for export in Florida . Tree full, dense. Fruit medium to large, 16 oz. with thick skin, regular ovate, orange-yellow covered with red and heavy purple bloom. Firm, juicy, medium fiber, fair to good quality. Flavor poor when over fertilized and irrigated. Resists anthracnose. Early, ripens well if picked immature. For interior.

Villasenor: Origin Los Angeles, 1950s, Sr. Villasenor. Tree dwarf, spreading, responds to strong rootstock. Fruit medium, to 12 oz., shape ovate, color greenish yellow, pink blush, flavor mild. Late midseason (Dec Jan). For coast, foothills.

Winters (syn, M20222, Southland): Origin Miami, USDA, 1959. Seedling of Ono, Philippine type, polyembryonic. Tree broad, production variable. Fruit medium, to 14 oz., smaller in desert, shape half-round, yellow blushed red. Subject to anthracnose, resists soft nose. Parthenocarpic fruit will reach full size. Season midseason (Nov-Dec), ripens well if picked immature. For coast, foothills, interior.

Zill : Origin Lake Worth, 1930. Seedling of Haden. Tree very spreading, open. Fruit small, 8-12 oz., almost round, apex oblique, yellow with blush, little fiber. Ripens early. For greenhouse planting.

Varieties grown in Hawaii , USA (Recommended varieties):

'Ah Ping', 'Fairchild', 'Gouveia', 'Harders', 'Keitt', 'Momi K', 'Pope', and 'Rapoza' are recommended mango varieties for Hawaii. All the listed varieties are productive and have superior quality fruit. They have less pronounced alternate-year bearing qualities than the more common 'Haden' and 'Pirie' varieties. All these varieties, including 'Haden' and 'Pirie', are monoembryonic and do not come true from seed. Flowering occurs from December to April, but offseason flowering is common, resulting in variable harvest times. 'Fairchild' is considered somewhat resistant to anthracnose and is favored for humid areas. 'Exel' is a high quality mango cultivar developed by the Department of Horticulture, University of Hawaii . It was selected from an open-pollinated population of 'Irwin' seedlings. Young 'Exel' trees begin to bear three to four years after transplanting into the orchard. 'Exel' bears fruit regularly, sets well and frequently flowers during the off season. Fruits usually mature in July and August but in some years, may mature as late as October. 'Exel' trees should be planted in sunny, dry areas to prevent anthracnose damage to immature fruit and flowers. 'Exel' fruits are ovate, 4 to 5.6 inches in length by 2.8 to 3.6 inches in width, with a short, rounded beak. The average fruit weight ranges from 14.1 to 17.6 ounces. The penduncle is set at the top of the fruit. Immature fruits are green with a purple blush. Mature fruits are yellow with a red over color on about half of the surface of the fruit. The flesh is firm, orange-yellow, juicy, sweet, and fiberless. The fruit has 18% total soluble solids. More than 90% of the fruit is edible flesh, because the fruit has a thin, flat seed.

         

(ii) Important mango cultivars in major producing countries are listed in the table below:

Country

Cultivars

Australia

Kensington Pride, Banana, Earlygold, Glenn, Haden, Irwin, Keitt , Kent , Zill

Bangladesh

Aswina, Fazli, Gopal Bhog, Himsagar, Khirsapati, Langra, Kishan Bhog, Kohinoor, Kua Pahari, Mohan Bhog

Brazil

Bourbon, Carlota, Coracoa, Espada, Itamaraca, Maco, Magoada, Rosa, Tommy Atkins

China

Baiyu, Guixiang, Huangpi, Huangyu, Macheco, Sannian, Yuexi No.1

Costa Rica

Haden, Irwin, Keitt, Mora, Tommy Atkins

Ecuador

Haden, Keitt , Kent , Tommy Atkins

Egypt

Alphonso, Bullocks Heart, Hindi Be Sennara, Langra, Mabrouka, Pairie, Taimour, Zebda

Guatemala

Haden , Kent , Tommy Atkins

Haiti

Francine, Madame Francis

Indonesia

Arumanis, Dodol, Gedong, Golek, Madu, Manalagi, Cengkir, Wangi

Israel

Haden, Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Maya, Nimrod , Kent , Palmer

Kenya

Boubo, Ngowe, Batawi

Malaysia

Arumanis, Kuala Selangor 2, Golek, Apple Rumani, Malgoa, Apple Mango, Maha-65, Tok Boon, Chok Anan , Nam Dok Mai

Mali

Amelie , Kent

Mexico

Haden, Irwin , Kent , Manila , Palmer, Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke

Myanmar

Aug Din, Ma Chit Su, Sein Ta Lone, Shwe Hin Tha

Pakistan

Anwar Ratol, Baganapalli, Chausa, Dashehari, Gulab Khas, Langra, Siroli, Sindhri, Suvarnarekha, Zafran

Peru

Haden, Keitt , Kent , Tommy Atkins

Philippines

Carabao, Manila Super, Pico, Binoboy, Carabao, Dudul, Pahutan, Senorita

South Africa

Fascell, Haden, Keitt , Kent , Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Zill

Sri Lanka

Karutha Colomban, Willard, Vellai Colomban, Petti amba, Malwana amba, Parrot Mango and Peterpasand, Dapara, Hingurakgoda

Thailand

Nam Dok Mai, Ngar Charn, Okrong, Rad, Chok Anan, Kao Keaw, Keow Savoey, Pimsenmum

Venezuela

Haden, Keitt , Kent , Tommy Atkins

Vietnam

Combodiana

       
       
   
Apple: The fruits are medium to large, nearly round in shape and have a rich yellow/orange to red color when ripe. Average length measures 9.7 cm by 11 cm in width, and the weight is 280 - 580 g (mean: 397 g). Normally, if not diseased, the skin is smooth and thin, and the juicy yellow flesh is of excellent flavor and of melting texture virtually free from fiber. This is not a polyembryonic cultivar and trees propagated by seed are very heterogeneous in fruit shape, color and quality.

The trees are large/ vigorous and of pyriform growth habit. Depending on location, harvesting seasons vary depending on region and the yields are medium.

Advantages:
- early cultivar of excellent fruit quality
- small/medium seed size
- free from fibres

 Disadvantages:
- susceptible to anthracnose and powdery mildew
- alternate bearing
- range of altitude adaptation is limited

       
       
   
Carabao: This early mid-season cultivar originates from the Philippines where it is grown on a large scale for both local consumption and export. Since the seed is polyembryonic , propagation is easily done. The medium-sized oblong to elongated and light green to yellow fruits are blushed with few small green dots (lenticels); the base is rounded to slightly flattened. The average dimensions are 13 cm long by 7.5 cm wide with weight ranging between 220 and 311 g. The skin is thin and medium-tough. The flesh is tender and melting with only a few fiber, lemon yellow, spicy and sweet with good to excellent eating quality. The fruits are produced in clusters.

The tree is vigorous, forming a large and dense canopy . It is a medium to heavy bearer but may alternate. Very good resistance to diseases has been recorded.

Advantages :
- seed propagation possible (polyembryonic)
- good yields and excellent quality
- fair/good resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew

Disadvantages:
-
skin colour
- susceptible to fruit fly
- may alternate in bearing fruit

       
       
   

Arumanis: This cultivar is also referred to as Harumanis ( Malaysia ) and it originates from Indonesia . It is widely planted in humid parts of the world where many cultivars of better quality fail to fruit.

The small, oval to oblong fruits are yellow with large yellow-white dots and a rounded base. The beak is inconspicuous and the skin is thin and tough. The flesh is firm and juicy with little fiber. It is lemon yellow, sweet, slightly insipid with a strong aroma, but with only poor to fair eating quality. The polyembryonic seed is covered in a thick woody shell.

The tree is vigorous and tall with a slightly open canopy . It bears towards low yields and biennial bearing. Resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose is only low to fair.

       
       
   

Batawi: The fruit is very large, round and has a rich olive-green to purple-maroon color. Average length measures 10.7 cm by 10.6 cm in width and weight ranges from 470 to 590 g (average: 523 g). The internal quality is usually good both in texture with little fiber and in flavor. Fruits show a prominent beak and the flesh is pale orange.

The trees are relatively small, round in shape and bear a medium-sized crop.

Advantages:
-
seed propagation possible ( polyembryonic )
- resistance to anthracnose rather good
- little fiber, no distinct biennial bearing

Disadvantages:
-
very susceptible to powdery mildew
- undesirably large fruits
- only fair productivity

       
       
   

Boribo: The fruit is large and oblong but not as slender as Ngowe. The shoulders are only slightly curved, and the break is obscure. The average fruit dimensions are: 11.5 cm long by 7.8 cm broad with a weight range of 430 - 640 g (mean: 511 g). The fruits are pale olive green with bloom and yellow-apricot when ripe. The internal fruit quality is good to excellent; the flesh is of a deep orange colour, virtually free from fiber, juicy, and of a very strong typical mango flavor. Propagation by seed is possible.

The tree is large and vigorous and there is no alternate bearing and the yields are medium to heavy.

Advantages:
-
seed propagation possible ( polyembryonic )
- regular bearing
- fairly anthracnose resistant

Disadvantages:
-
susceptible to powdery mildew
- flavor not liked by everybody
- tree size

       
       
   

Chino : The provenance of this mid-season cultivar is not known and it will never achieve commercial significance. However, trees produce abundant fruits of good quality and are recommended for backyard planting. Since the seed is polyembryonic , multiplication of true-to-type progeny does not pose any problems.

The medium-sized oblique and plump fruit has a greenish-orange colour often combined with a light red flush. The average fruit dimensions are: length 10.9 cm by 9.5 cm width; weight 386 g (range: 195 - 490 g). The base is rounded and there is an indication of a tiny beak . Lenticels are few, brown and corky. The yellow flesh is firm, spicy and juicy with only a moderate amount of fibre.

The tree is moderately vigorous, small to medium with a dense rounded canopy . Production is heavy and regular, but the cultivar is highly susceptible to anthracnose.

Advantages:
-
seed propagation possible (polyembryonic)
- small tree, but a heavy producer
- fair resistance to powdery mildew

Disadvantages:
-
fruit lacks eye-appeal
- very susceptible to anthracnose
- the fruits do not store well on the tree

       
       
   

Dodo: The fruit is large and fairly oval and ripens from dark green to a light green and finally turns yellow. The rounded and obvious beak faces downwards. The flesh is orange and juicy, the fibre content varies from little to much and there is usually a strong turpentine flavor. Lenticels are plenty, first green and later changing to brownish. The average dimensions are: length 11.6 cm by 9.9 cm in width, weight 453 g (range: 339 - 500g). The seeds are polyembryonic and the fruit may be classified as one of the best of the more common local cultivars.

The tree is very large and of a tall, upright growth with dense foliage and small leaves. It is an alternate bearer but produces a considerable crop in productive years. Fruits mature in January and February and show a very good resistance to anthracnose.

Advantages:
-
seed propagation possible (polyembryonic)
- good resistance to anthracnose
- travels well to the market

Disadvantages:
-
huge tree and therefore difficult to harvest
- tendency towards biennial bearing
- susceptible to powdery mildew

       
       
   

Gesine: The medium-sized, oblong brightly coloured fruit is of very good quality. Fruits exposed to the sun are of an intensive red colour, while those developing inside the canopy are apricot with a reddish blush. The fruit flesh is melting, juicy, deep orange, aromatic and relatively free from fibers. The average fruit dimensions are: length 11.7 cm by 7.8 cm width and an average weight of 280 g (range: 240 - 300g). Lenticels are white changing to brownish-green at maturity . Without treatment the fruit is heavily attacked by anthracnose and to a lesser degree by powdery mildew.

The tree is medium in size and forms a dense canopy. Yields are heavy and regular.

Advantages:
-
very attractive fruits of good quality
- crop early and consistently
- small- to medium-sized tree

Disadvantages:
-
very susceptible to anthracnose
- fruits do not store well on the tree

       
       
   
Golek: This cultivar originates from Indonesia . The mid-season fruit is greenish-yellow with an orange overlay and prominent white dots; it is oblong with a rounded base. The average fruit dimensions are: length 10.9 cm by 8.3 cm width and an average weight of 325 g (range: 210 - 500g). The skin is thin and easily separated; the flesh is soft and juicy with abundant fiber (not objectionable), deep yellow, sweet, insipid with a mild aroma and a fair eating quality.

The tree is moderately vigorous with an upright, open canopy .

Advantages:
-
seed propagation possible ( polyembryonic )
- good resistance to anthracnose
- good shipper

Disadvantages:
-
fruit colour
- flavour not very popular
- needs more publicity

       
       
   

Haden: This seedling of Mulgoba (Indian type) originating from Florida was introduced in 1910 and has since been grown in numerous other countries. Because of its excellent quality, the seed is used as parent for several other cultivars.

The medium to large-sized fruit is bright yellow with deep crimson or red blush and numerous large whitish/yellow glands. The shape is regular ovate and plump with a rounded base and depressed beak . Average length is 10 cm with an 8 cm width and an average weight of 431 g. The skin is thick and tough; the flesh is yellowish-orange, firm, very juicy with a pleasant aroma. Moderate fiber occurs only close to the seed which is mono-embryonic and covered in a medium-thick woody shell.

The tree becomes quite large and spreading; production is erratic but yields are satisfactory.

Advantages:
-
very attractive appearance
- excellent fruit quality
- suitable for commercial plantings
- good shipper

Disadvantages:
-
susceptible to anthracnose and only moderately resistant to powdery mildew; increased inputs are therefore needed to produce clean fruits

       
       
   

Heart: The fruit is small to medium sized and of a bright yellow colour with a few large white dots. It is heart-shaped with a flattened base and beak . It has an average length of 8.4 cm, is 8 cm wide and its weight ranges from 140 to 255 g. The skin is thick. The flesh is firm and juicy with a moderate amount of coarse fibers; it is lemon yellow and has a spicy, resinous aroma. Its eating quality is only fair.

The tree is vigorous with a large, spreading rounded canopy . This mid-season cultivar is a fairly good and regular producer.

Advantages:
-
seed propagation possible ( polyembryonic )
- no distinct biennial bearing
- resistance to anthracnose is rather good

Disadvantages:
-
flavour not very popular among consumers
- colour of skin
- size of fruit

       
       
   

Irwin: As a seedling of Lippens, this cultivar originated in Miami (1945) and has been Florida 's leading local market cultivar for a long time.

The fruit is bright yellow with a crimson or dark red blush and numerous large white dots. Its shape is ovate with a rounded base; average size is 12.3 cm long and 8.5 cm wide; average weight is 372 g. Fruits are often produced in clusters. The flesh is soft, tender, melting and juicy; only slightly fibrous, lemon yellow, sweet and mild with a pleasant aroma and of good quality. The seed is mono-embryonic and embedded in a relatively small and thin stone shell.

The tree is small to medium, moderately vigorous with an open canopy and produces consistently good yields. The fruits mature from late January until March (mid-season).

Advantages:
-
good fruit quality combined with attractive appearance
- one of the most prolific cultivars
- trees are somewhat dwarf-sized

Disadvantages:
-
short post-harvest life

       
       
   

Kensington: This seedling originated from Queensland , Australia (1960s), and is also known as Kensington Pride and Bowen. The variety was first discovered in Bowen, north Queensland , but is thought to have originated as a seed imported on a shipping line from India . Kensington Pride is renowned for its unique flavour and is known under several different names such as Bowen, Bowen Special or Kensington. Although this variety is the most popular in Australia , it is not grown commercially overseas. 

At present, this early mid-season cultivar enjoys only little attention but shows great potential especially for the local market. The fruit is medium in size, almost round with a flattened base and a slight beak, averaging 12.2 cm in length and 8.1 cm in width; average weight is 319 g. When ripe, the skin colour is yellow with a slightly orange/pink blush.

The skin is thick and adherent and the flesh yellow, sweet, soft and juicy with moderate to little fiber. The seed, covered by a moderately thick woody stone (7.8% of fruit weight) is polyembryonic .

The trees are vigorous/spreading and produce consistent, high yields.

Advantages:
-
propagation by both seed (polyembryonic) and grafting
- good shelf life
- excellent eating quality

Disadvantages:
-
moderately susceptible to anthracnose
- needs more publicity

       
       
   

Kent : This open pollinated seedling of the cultivar Brooks originated in Miami , Florida , and was released in 1944. Kent is often mistaken for the quite similar looking cultivar Keitt but (just one difference) Kent matures earlier. The large fruit is greenish-yellow with a red or crimson blush on the shoulder. The average length measures 12.4 cm with a width of 9.7 cm and an average weight of 545 g. The fruit-shape is regular ovate with a rounded base and often with two slight beaks. The skin is thick and tough and small yellow lenticels are numerous; the flesh is juicy, melting, deep yellow, fibreless and of a rich flavour. The seed, embedded in a thick, woody stone (8.5% of fruit weight) is mono-embryonic .

The tree is large and vigorous, with a dense upright canopy , and it produces good yields in the late mid-season.

Advantages:
-
late maturity
- fibreless and of excellent internal quality
- fruits ship well

Disadvantages:
-
skin coloration is often inadequate
- prone to storage diseases
- may alternate in bearing

       
       
   

Madoe: This cultivar originated from Indonesia where it is also known as Madu. The fruits resemble the local Apple cultivar but are much more resistant to anthracnose. They are medium to large in size, oval/oblique in shape with a rounded base and a slight beak . The average length measures 9.7 cm with a width of 10.7 cm, and the weight varies from 310 - 450 g (mean: 380 g). The skin colour is deep yellow/apricot with the shoulders showing a reddish flush. The yellow flesh is soft, tender and juicy, almost fibreless and of rich flavour.

The tree is moderately vigorous with a dense, rounded canopy . It produces medium-heavy during mid-season and has a polyembryonic seed.

Advantages:
-
good anthracnose resistance
- outstanding fruit quality
- seed propagation is possible (polyembryonic)

Disadvantage:
-
not much known on the local market

       
       
   

Matthias: This mid-season, open pollinated chance seedling is of unknown origin but comes most probably from West Africa . The medium-sized ovate fruit has a deep-yellow skin and its shoulders are blushed with red. There is only a slight beak ; lenticels are at first green and later turn yellow. The average fruit dimensions are: length 10.3 cm and width 7.8 cm, with an average weight of 251 g. The firm yellow flesh is sweet, juicy and relatively free from fibres. There is a moderate resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew. The tree is of medium to large size and forms a dense canopy . Yields are heavy and regular.

Advantages:
-
moderate resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew
- propagation by both seed ( polyembryonic ) and grafting
- regular bearer

Disadvantage:
-
more adaptation trials and more publicity are needed

       
       
   

Maya: A cultivar of unknown parentage (Haden X?), Maya was selected in Israel and very much resembles the Haden cultivar although its fruits are much smaller.

The ovate and plump fruit is yellow with a reddish blush and is medium-sized. The average fruit length measures 10.3 cm with a width of 7.8 cm, and the weight ranges from 250 - 380 g (mean: 295g). There is only a small rounded beak . Lenticels are white at first, changing to yellow/brown later. The firm yellow flesh is juicy and aromatic, virtually free from fibre and of high eating quality. The fairly large seed (9.2% of fruit weight) is mono-embryonic .

The tree is large and vigorous, tends to alternate bearing and is very susceptible to anthracnose.

Advantages:
-
resembles Haden
- good to excellent eating quality

Disadvantages:
-
highly susceptible to anthracnose
- danger of internal breakdown of fruit flesh

       
       
   

Ngowe: This cultivar is also known as Lamu mango. It is large, oblong and slender with a very prominent hook-like beak at the apex . From pale green, the fruit develops to a most attractive yellow to orange colour when ripe. The deep yellow flesh is of excellent quality, virtually free from fibre, melting, and carries no turpentine taste. The average fruit length measures 14 cm with a width of 9.5 cm, and a weight range of 425 - 600g. The seeds are polyembryonic which develops more or less true-to-type plants.

The trees are comparatively small and round in shape. Yields are medium and alternate bearing may occur.

Advantages:
-
good to excellent fruit quality
- moderate tree size
- good shipper
- seed propagation possible (polyembryonic)

Disadvantages:
-
susceptible to powdery mildew
- tendency of alternate bearing

       
       
   

Nimrod: This cultivar originated from Israel and likely resembles the Apple cultivar. The large oval/oblique fruit is deep yellow with a light red flush with numerous yellow lenticels when ripe. The base is flattened and there is only a slight indication of a small rounded beak . The average fruit length measures 11 cm with a width of 10 cm, and the weight ranges from 340 - 580 g. The skin is thick and tough and separates easily; the flesh is soft and juicy with little fibre, yellow, mild, aromatic and of good eating quality. The seed is mono-embryonic and embedded in a medium-thick woody stone (7.6% of fruit weight).

The tree is vigorous, medium-sized, with an upright dense canopy .

       
       
   

Parwin: This seedling originated from Bradenton in Florida and was released in 1954. Of unknown parentage, it resembles Haden but lacks the latter's bright red colour.

The fruit is medium to large with an average length of 10.8 cm and a width of 8.5 cm. The fruit weight ranges from 380 to 560. The shape is oblong to ovate and tends to be plump; the basic colour is light yellow with a pink/red blush; lenticels are distinct and numerous. The fruits are often borne in clusters. The yellow juicy flesh is relatively free from fibres, moderately sweet with a good flavour. The medium-sized stone (7.5% of fruit weight) encloses the mono-embryonic seed.

The tree is vigorous with a slightly open habit and there is a remarkable resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew. Yields are satisfactory and quite regular.

       
       
   

Peach: The roundish/oblique medium-sized fruits are fibrous. The average size is 9.3 cm long and 8.1 cm wide with an average weight of 241 g. The apex is broadly rounded with a depression on the ventral side and a slight beak . The thick tough skin is smooth with white lenticels and has an attractive yellow-orange colour. The flesh is apricot-yellow with a tender juicy texture. The eating quality is good; there is a sweet flavour and a very slight turpentine taste. The seed is large (8.1% of fruit weight) and polyembryonic .

The trees are big and produce consistent high yields.

Advantages:
-
fairly resistant to diseases
- good shelf life
- suitable for higher elevations

Disadvantages:
-
only suitable for the local market
- contains a rather high amount of fibre

       
       
   

Sabine: The medium- to large-sized, elongated but full fruits are of very good quality. Those developing inside the canopy are deep yellow while those exposed to the sun are bright yellow with a dark red blush. The yellow flesh is of medium texture, fibreless, pleasantly sweet, juicy and of a mild aroma. The average fruit dimensions are: length 14.2 cm, width 6.6 cm and weight in the range of 360 - 520 g. The rounded apex carries only a small depressed beak . The seed is mono-embryonic and covered by a medium-sized woody stone (9.6% of fruit weight) can also be multiplied by seed.

The tree is moderately vigorous and upright with a dense canopy. There seems to be a slight alternation in bearing but yields are satisfactory.

Advantages:
-
only slightly affected by anthracnose and powdery mildew
- no distinct biennial bearing
- no fibres

Disadvantages:
-
needs more publicity

       
       
   

Sabre: Most probably, this cultivar has its origin in South Africa; already in 1928 it had been described by Davis and in 1947 it was one of the most widely planted cultivars. Besides its fair eating quality, Sabre as a polyembryonic seed producer is better known as a rootstock supplier. The oblong , kidney-shaped fruits are small to medium sized. On average they are 11.8 cm long and 6.9 cm broad and weigh an average of 233 g (range: 180 - 290g), the apex being broadly rounded and curved into a prominent beak . The smooth-surfaced tough leathery skin - yellow-green, often with a reddish blush - is easily removed from the flesh. The flesh is deep orange in colour with a melting texture and a medium amount of fibre. The eating quality is fair, sweet to insipid-flavoured and normally has a turpentine aftertaste. The seed is large, up to 9.4% of total fruit weight.

The tree is small to medium, a regular and heavy bearer and fairly resistant to diseases..

Advantages:
-
suitable for higher elevations
- fairly good resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew
- recommended rootstock producer

Disadvantages:
-
fruit quality in general
- over-bearing

       
       
   

Sensation: This cultivar originates from Miami , Florida , and was released in 1941.

The oval/oblique, medium-sized fruit is deep yellow with a prominent dark-red to purple blush that covers most of its surface. The rounded apex shows only a slight beak formation. The average fruit measurements are: length 10.8 cm by 7.8 cm in width and an average of 307 g in weight. Lenticels are numerous and pale yellow in colour; the skin is medium-thick, tough and separates easily from the flesh. The deep-yellow flesh is fibreless, firm and juicy. It is sweet, of a distinctive mild flavour and of good quality. The mono-embryonic seed is covered in a thick woody stone (5.8% of fruit weight). Due to its severely alternate bearing, susceptibility to anthracnose and uneven ripening, Sensation has lost much of its former popularity.

The trees are moderately vigorous and develop into a broad-rounded, symmetrical canopy a late bearing cultivar depending on location.

Advantages:
-
beautifully coloured late cultivar
- none to scanty fibres
- heavy yielder

Disadvantages:
-
susceptibility to anthracnose
- alternate bearing
- frequent severe internal breakdown (jelly seed)

       
       
   

Smith: This open pollinated seedling of Haden was found growing on the J.T. Smith farm in Honolulu, Hawaii, and was introduced to Florida around 1946.

The elongated large fruits are of an orange-yellow base colour combined with a deep crimson blush. The apex is broadly rounded and there is no beak . The thick tough skin is covered with large white lenticels. The average fruit size is 13.9 cm long and 7.5 cm wide, with an average weight of 550 g. The orange-yellow flesh is juicy, spicy, of a firm texture and almost fibreless. The fruit quality is rated as good and yields are moderate to heavy and regular. The seed is fairly large (7% of fruit weight), long, flat and mono-embryonic .

The trees grow upright and vigorously and are harvested at mid-season. Fruits must be left on the tree to maturity if they are to develop their full colour and flavour.

Advantages:
-
highly productive
- nearly fibreless
- good coloration

Disadvantages:
-
quite susceptible to anthracnose
- tendency to only fair fruit quality

       
       
   

Tommy Atkins: This cultivar originated from a seed planted in the 1920s at Fort Lauderdale in Florida . Parentage is unknown and it was released in 1948.

Tommy Atkins has become an important commercial variety . The fruits are medium to large, oval to oblong, orange/yellow with a heavy red blush, numerous white lenticels and a broadly rounded base. They measure an average length of 12.6 cm, are 9.9 cm wide and have an average weight of 522g. The smooth skin is tough and thick. The flesh is firm and medium juicy with a moderate amount of fibre, yellow to deep yellow in colour, mild and sweet with a strong pleasant aroma. The eating quality is fairly good; the seed is mono-embryonic and covered in a thick, woody stone (6.6% of total fruit weight).

The tree is vigorous/large with a rounded canopy and it produces consistently heavy and good crops. It is an early to mid-season cultivar and is highly resistant to diseases.

Advantages:
-
very attractive fruits
- excellent shipping and shelf-life qualities
- consistent producer
- good resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew

Disadvantages:
-
danger of internal breakdown (jelly seed)
- fibre content is slightly higher than average

       
       
   

Van Dyke: This cultivar originated from Homestead ( Florida ) and belongs to a selected group of seedlings distinguished by a greater resistance to anthracnose, very attractive colour, and good shelf life and shipping qualities. These seedlings appeared in the 1950s and 1960s.

The ovate, small- to medium-sized fruit (average weight 280 g) is very attractive showing a bright yellow ground colour with a heavy crimson blush and prominent beak . The average fruit dimensions are: 10.5 cm length by 7.9 cm width. The skin is thick, though easily separating and covered with numerous white/yellow lenticels. The flesh is quite firm, melting and juicy with little fibre, orange-yellow, rich, spicy and sweet with a strong pleasant aroma. It is of good to excellent quality. The seed is mono-embryonic and covered by a medium-sized woody stone (7.1% of fruit weight).

The trees are medium-sized with a large open canopy and are regular producers but yield only moderately.

Advantages:
-
attractive colour
- good resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew
- regular bearer

Disadvantages:
-
poor to moderate yields
- fruit size

       
       
   

Zill: As a Haden seedling it originated in Lake Worth , Florida , in 1930.

The small to medium, ovate fruit is yellow with an intense red or crimson blush. The apex is rounded with a small beak . The fruit shape resembles that of van Dyke, and the average dimensions are: length 10.6 cm by 8.2 cm width, average weight 285g (range: 225 - 345g). Lenticels are yellow/brown and the flesh is deep yellow, juicy, soft and without fibre. The flavour is rich and sweet and of good to excellent eating quality. The seed is mono-embryonic and covered by a thick woody stone (8% of fruit weight).

The tree becomes fairly large with an open, spreading canopy . This early to mid-season cultivar variety, type produces well and fairly consistently. Zill has a moderate resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew, but does not withstand storage and shipping stress well.

Advantages:
-
early season cultivar
- regular producer
- outstanding quality

Disadvantages:
-
not a good shipper
- danger of internal breakdown (jelly seed)
- low/moderate resistance to diseases

       
       
   

Zillate: Not much is known about the origin of this cultivar but it is assumed that the seedling was developed in Florida .

The medium-sized oblong fruit is of a yellow ground-colour and has an intensive red blush. There are numerous small white lenticels covering the thick, tough skin. The rounded apex carries an almost non-existent underdeveloped beak . The average fruit dimensions are: length 12.5 cm by 7.1 cm width, with a weight of 291 g (range: 260 - 350 g). The firm, juicy, yellow flesh is relatively free from fiber, aromatic and of good eating quality. The fairly large flat seed (7.8% of total fruit weight) is monoembryonic .

The tree is moderately vigorous, forming an upright tight canopy . The rather late-season cultivar yields quite well and regularly. It shows moderate resistance to powdery mildew but is affected by anthracnose.

Advantages:
-
good shelf life
- fibreless and of good eating quality
- attractive appearance

Disadvantage:
-
needs more publicity

       

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