There are many distinct, true-breeding varieties in the world 4 today. Many were developed from systematic breeding programmes and while others were from selections made by growers. Recently, transgenic varieties were developed through biotechnology processes. Papaya varieties can be self or cross-pollinated. In general, gynodioecious varieties (having hermaphrodite and female trees) are self or cross-pollinated, while the dioecious varieties (having male and female trees) are enforced cross-pollinators.

Popular papaya varieties in the world 4

Country

Variety

Sex type

Flesh colour

Australia

Improved Petersen

dioecious

Yellow

 

Guinea Gold

hermaphrodite

Yellow

 

Sunnybank/S7

dioecious

Yellow

 

Richter/Arline

dioecious

Yellow

America - Mexico

Verde

-

-

 

Gialla

-

-

 

Cera

-

-

 

Chincona

-

-

USA - Florida

Cariflora

dioecious

Yellow

 

Betty

dioecious

Yellow

 

Homestead

dioecious

Yellow

USA - Hawaii

Kapoho Solo

hermaphrodite

Yellow

 

Sunrise

hermaphrodite

Red

 

Waimanalo

hermaphrodite

Yellow

 

Rainbow

hermaphrodite

Yellow

Venezuela

Paraguanera

-

-

 

Roja

-

Red

Caribbean - Barbados

Wakefield

-

-

 

Graeme 5, and 7

-

-

Cuba

Maradol

hermaphrodite

Red

Trinidad

Santa Cruz Giant

-

-

 

Cedro

-

-

Dominican Republic

Cartagena

hermaphrodite

Yellow

Asia - India

Coorg Honey Dew

hermaphrodite

Yellow

 

Coimbitor 2

dioecious

Yellow

Indonesia

Semangka

hermaphrodite

Red

 

Dampit

hermaphrodite

Red

Malaysia

Eksotika

hermaphrodite

Red

 

Sekaki

hermaphrodite

Red

Philippines

Cavite / Sinta

hermaphrodite

Red

Taiwan

Tainung No. 5

hermaphrodite

Red

Thailand

Sai-nampueng

hermaphrodite

Red

 

Khaek Dam

hermaphrodite

Red

South Africa

Hortus Gold

dioecious

Yellow

 

Kaapmuiden

-

Yellow

 

Honey Gold

dioecious

Yellow

Malaysian Papaya

In Malaysia, papaya is a smallholder's crop. Planting is widely spread throughout the country and the major cultivars planted are Batu Arang, Sitiawan and Subang 6. Other cultivars used as dessert fruit are Eksotika, Eksotika II and Sekaki. The Eksotikas have better eating quality than the other three cultivars in terms of flavor and taste. A major population is currently exported to Hong Kong and Singapore where the prices are very lucrative. These cultivars are also exported to Europe, Korea, Taiwan and the Middle East.

Varieties:

Eksotika is a self-pollinated inbred variety, similar features to Sunrise Solo except for the larger fruit size. It is a very popular variety for export and local markets in Malaysia . Eksotika is a good bearer, about 60t/ha/year. The fruit are small to medium size (400 - 800g). The fruit has orange-red flesh with a pleasant aroma and high sugar content of 12-14ºBrix but does not keep well because of its soft texture. It is also quite susceptible to fruit freckles and malformed top disease. 

Sekaki (also known as 'Hong Kong' papaya) is the second most popularly cultivated variety in Malaysia after Eksotika. It is a cross-pollinated variety and a prolific bearer (60-70 tonnes/ha/year) with medium sized fruit of 1.5 - 2 kg. The tree is rather dwarfed and bears low to the ground. It is also easy to manage in the field because of its tolerance to malformed top disease. Sekaki 5 fruit is attractive with smooth, even-coloured and freckle-free skin. The flesh is red, firm but sugar content is not high at 10ºBrix or less.

In Malaysia, a F1 hybrid called Eksotika II 6 was developed from hybridization of Line 19 with its sib, Eksotika (formerly Line 20). The hybrid released in 1991, has similar features to Eksotika, but the yield is 14 - 33% higher due to the larger fruit weighing between 600 - 800 g. The appearance of the fruit is more attractive, with smooth skin and high tolerance to freckles. The flesh is firmer and the fruit stores longer, making Eksotika II more preferred than its predecessor for export.

   
   
Sekaki 5, a popular large fruited variety from Malaysia
   
   
   
   
Eksotika II 6 , a small fruited export variety from Malaysia
   

Phillipines Papaya

Papaya is recently grown for local fresh fruit market, for canning and for papain processing. The most popular strains of Solo papaya commercially propagated here are Kapoho and Sinrise. Many selections from these cultivars are developed and maintained by the more competitive growers like some corporate and multi-national farms. The Solo papaya is basically grown for fresh fruit since local demand is increasing especially in the local supermarkets. On the other hand, there is a favorable demand for Hawaiian Solo from the Middle East, Hong Kong, India and Singapore.

Thailand Papaya

Papaya is one of the most important and well known economic fruit crops in Thailand which is grown throughout the country. Due to fast growth and good prices for the fruit, it has become one of the most successful crops in producing a quick return for growers. Papaya trees have been successfully planted between rows of newly planted fruit and plantation crops, including the replacements for those destroyed by bad weather.

Other varieties

Self-pollinated varieties
The most popular variety of papaya in the world today is the Solo. It is so called because of its small fruit, about 350 - 500g each, which is convenient as a single serving. Within this variety are many lines such as Line 5, Line 8, Line 10, Kapoho, Waimanalo and Sunrise . Kapoho is the major cultivar in Hawaii while Sunrise which is the only pink-flesh line, is widely grown in many parts of the world.

   
   
"Wainamalo" papaya
   

Cross-pollinated varieties
Dioecious varieties such as Hortus Gold, Sunnybank, Betty and Cariflora, which have male and female flowers on separate trees, are enforced cross-pollinators. Hortus Gold from South Africa, Sunnybank (Australia) and Betty (Florida, USA) are very old varieties. The female fruits are yellow-fleshed and typically round. Cariflora fruits are also yellow fleshed, but smaller and quite tolerant to the ringspot virus disease. There are also gynodioecious varieties that are cross-pollinated such as Khaek Dam, Maradol, Cibinong and Cavite. Khaegdam is Thailand's best known variety. It is vigorous, bears red-fleshed fruit about 1.2 kg with 10.6% total soluble solids content. Maradol originates from Cuba , is a short-stature variety that bears fruit very close to the ground. The fruit weighs 1-2 kg, is attractive with firm red flesh with 10-11 % total soluble solids content. It has a characteristic musky flavour. The fruit is quite susceptible to anthracnose. Cibinong is an Indonesian variety with large red-fleshed fruit (2-3 kg) and grown mainly for its high papain yield. Cavite or Pineras is a Philippine variety with large, oblong fruit weighing 1.5 - 6 kg and thick, yellow to orange flesh.

Hybrids
Commercial F1 hybrids of papaya are rare. An important hybrid developed in Taiwan that has resistance to papaya ringspot virus disease is Tainung No. 5 which was developed from a cross between Florida (FL-77-5) and the Costa Rica Red.

"Sunrise" papaya
"Tainung" papaya

Hybrid papaya varieties appear to show better adaptability, vigour and yield performance over traditional cultivars and they are expected to be more important in the future.

Clonal varieties
Honey Gold is perhaps the only known papaya clone in the world today. It is a dioecious variety from South Africa which was selected and propagated from generation to generation by leafy cuttings. Clonal varieties have the advantage of greater uniformity, especially in fruit shape, which is sex-linked. Clonally propagated Honey Gold gives fairly high yields of 25 - 30 t/ha year under subtropical conditions and has been known to remain productive for 10 or more years. 

Vasconella (Carica) pentagona or Babaco, which is grown to a small extent in Ecuador and New Zealand is also exclusively clonally propagated by cuttings because of its parthenocarpic fruits.

 
     
    "Babaco"

Transgenic varieties
The world's first transgenic papaya was SunUp, which was transformed with coat-protein mediated resistance to papaya ringspot virus disease. Rainbow is the first transgenic commercial variety developed in Hawaii from a cross between SunUp and the conventional cultivar Kapoho. Transgenic varieties of Kamiya have also been developed by introduction of the coat-protein transgene from Rainbow through convention hybridization and backcrossing.

Transgenic papaya varieties with delayed fruit ripening and resistance to papaya ringspot virus disease are currently being actively developed in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines and Vietnam under the Papaya Biotechnology Network of Southeast Asia.

   
     
"Sun-up" GMO-papaya
   

VARIETIES FROM ASEAN COUNTRIES:
2 popular groups of papaya in Asean countries consist of varieties which “bear large” and “elongated fruit”

Varieties (large and elongated fruits): Subang, Sitiawan and Batu Arang from Malaysia; Kaegdum, Kaegnuan and Sainampeung from Thailand.

     
Khaek Dam
"Redlady"
Batu Arang
     
     
Subang6
Cocoa papaya
Khaek Nuan

Uses: popular with ice stalls and hawkers because of their convenience in cutting into slices and serving in slender plastic bag.

Varieties: "high quality small" and "round shaped" fruits.
Solo from Hawaii; Eksotika (Malaysian cultivar).
Uses: serves in halves and eaten with a spoon.

     
Hermaphrodite fruit of Sunrise Solo
Hermaphrodite fruit of Eksotika
     
     
Hermaphrodite fruit of Eksotika II
High Yielding Tree of Eksotika II
     
     
Hermaphrodite fruit of Eksotika
Solo papaya

Cultivars:

No

COUNTRY

COMMON NAME

NAME OF CULTIVAR

1.

MALAYSIA

Betik, papaya

Eksotika (introduced by MARDI, 9th Feb 1987)
Eksotika 2 (introduced by MARDI, 15 th Oct 1991)
Foot Long
Batu Arang
Subang 6
Sitiawan

2.

THAILAND

Papaya, malakor, loko, ma kuai thet

 

Kaegdum
Kaegnuan
Koko
Sainampeung

3.

INDONESIA

 

Dampit
Jingga
Paris

4.

PHILIPINES

lechosa

Solo
Kapoho (Solo Type)
Sunrise (Solo Type)
Cavite Special (Pineras)
Waimanolo
Sinta
Red Lady Papaya (F1 Hybrid)
Know You No 1
Tainung No 1
Tainung No 2
Tainung No 3

5.

SINGAPORE

Papaya

P 10 (Eksotika x local cultivar Ng Toh Seng, P5)
P 15 (Eksotika x Guam Island, P2)

6.

SRI LANKA

Mamao @ papaw

Rathna (recommended varieties)

7.

HAWAII

 

Solo Type:
Line 5 Solo
Line 8 Solo
Line 10 Solo
Kapoho Solo (Puna Solo)
Sunrise Solo (best known in ASEAN)
Waimanalo (Solo Line 77)
Sunset
Higgins (Line 17A)
Wilder (Line 25)
Dwarf Solo (Solo x Florida's Betty)
Big Bluestem (Purplestem x Bluestem)
Bluestem Solo @ Blue Solo (Big Bluestem x Solo)
Cariflora

8.

INDIA

Papaya

Common varieties:
Coorg Honey Dew
Pusa Dwarf
Pusa Giant
Pusa Majesty
Pusa Delicious
CO.1
CO.2
CO.3
CO.4
CO.5
CO.6
Popular Varieties:
Washington
Burliar Long

9.

AUSTRALIA

Papaw @ paw paw

Bettina
Improved Petersen
Petersen
Hybrid No 5
Yarwun Yellow
Gold Cross
Goldy
Hong Kong
Guinea Gold
Golden Surprise
Sunny Bank

10.

BRAZIL

Mamao @ Tree Melon (nickname)

Betty
Bettina
43-A-3
Zapote

11.

COLOMBIA

 

Campo Grande. Tocaimera
Zapote Solo

12.

Trinidad and Tobago

 

Santa Cruz Grant

13.

South Africa

 

Hortus Gold
Honey Gold

     
 
     
 
Dampit

Cavite Special

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